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Hermaphroditism

1) Hermaphrodite : an individual that produces both eggs and sperm. There are two kinds:
2) Hypotheses for the evolution of simultaneous hermaphroditism : A) The genetic advantages and disadvantages of self-fertilizationWhether or not selfing evolves depends on trade-off between increased reproductive output from selfing versus decreased survivorship of offspringExample: Jewelweed - seeds produced by outcrossing had 1.5-2 times higher survival. However, plants produced by selfing cost 50% less energy to make B) The difficulty of finding a mate or being pollinated A single, self-fertilizing hermaphrodite can colonize a new habitat and reproduce in the absence of others of its own species. Weeds, parasites, sessile organisms.Note: even if sterile, possession of male and female organs means that any two individuals can mateC) Allocation of resources between male and female functionsSame organs can serve both male and female functions, which reduces the amount of energy needed to make themExample: in plants, one flower and one nectar reward for both male and female functions, so pollinator can pick up and deliver pollen in one visitD) Why not cheat?An hermaphrodite that fertilizes eggs of others but does not reciprocate has reproductive advantage. Mechanisms to prevent cheating: short simultaneous breeding, tit-for-tat (egg trading)
3) Hypotheses for the evolution of sequential hermaphroditism : Size-Advantage Model If the expected number of offspring differs between the sexes as a function of their size, then an individual that changes its sex at the right size or age will have more offspring than one that remains exclusively male or femaleExample: Cleaner WrasseIf an individual is small when it is young, it should stay as a female and reproduce as much as it can. Then when it grows up and gets large, it can change into a male and continue to have more offspring. B) Prevention of self-fertilization1) Dichogamy - male and female reproductive function separated in time. Two types:A) Protandry - male function first, female function secondB) Protogyny - female function first, male function second 2) Monoecy (plants) - male and female reproductive organs in different flowers on the same plant (common in many trees like oaks)3) Dioecy (plants) - individual plants male or female, both not both, and bear only male or female flowers Dioecy always ensures outcrossing Common in conifers
4) Why aren’t all organisms hermaphrodites? : Why aren’t all organisms hermaphrodites?

Created on March 07, 2017
# of questions: 4

Reproductive adaptions in Animals

1) Asexual Reproduction : Advantages: high production, reproduction when mates are rareDisadvantages: Produces no new genetic variation
2) Parthenogenesis : offspring develops from unfertilized eggsMany arthropods, some fish, reptiles, and amphibians do this
3) Budding : new individual arises as an outgrowth of an older one via mitotic cell divisionsSponges and some Cnidarians
4) External Fertilization (can only happen in aquatic environments) : 1) Eggs and sperm reside in an aquatic habitat2) low probability of fertilization 3) Water facilitates dispersal; larval stages often are mobile; convergent evolution (i.e. many species have coordinated their release)Male gametes swim or are carried by currents to female gametes
5) B) Internal Fertilization : 1) Advantages over external fertilization: protects against desiccation (gametes drying out), protects embryo, longer developmentTrade Off: Fewer offspring2 kinds of internal fertilizationA) Spermatophores - sperm filled packet often containing nutrients for femaleB) Copulatory Organs - Convergent evolution in structures of male for transfer of spermTubular penis, modified phallus structures, etc.

Created on March 07, 2017
# of questions: 11

Sexual Selection/Sexual Dimorphism

1) Sexual Dimorphism : any difference between the sexes of a species. Examples: Size (spiders)Color (bluebirds)Behavior (woodpeckers)
2) What is Sexual Selection? : Natural Selection - A differential change in the relative frequencies of genes due to differences between individuals in their ability to survive and reproduce Problem: How can bizarre traits (like a peacock’s tail) evolve, if natural selection favors traits for survival?Darwin: These traits are favored through advantages in mating (bizarre traits get to mate more)
3) Sexual selection definition : A differential change in the relative frequencies of genes due to differences between individuals in their ability to mateNo mention of survival Deals with selection on traits for mating
4) Two Mechanisms for Sexual Selection: : A) Mate Competition (intrasexual selection)A differential success among members of one sex, usually males, in direct competition or fights for mates, leading to the development of secondary sexual characters of dominance and fighting ability (larger size, antlers, canines, etc.)Example: In Elephant seal population, 3 of the largest males out of 19 accounted for 80% of matings
5) Reproductive Role Hypothesis : Different selection pressures act on males and females to ensure successful reproductionSexual dimorphism may be advantageous for reproduction and parental care Based on natural, not sexual selection How: Darwin claimed Fecundity SelectionLarger females make more or larger eggs and have higher reproductive successExample: Water Striders: females have larger abdomens and larger size than males. Larger females lay more eggs over their lifetime.

Created on March 07, 2017
# of questions: 6

quiz 3
MSW Research midterm
1) A frame of reference for interpreting the world is referred to as a : hypothesis

Created on March 07, 2017
# of questions: 1

english

1) Whose manny : a boy

Created on March 07, 2017
# of questions: 1

Quiz 2

1) Evidence-based practitioners wil : assume that evidence on practice effectiveness will find its way to them

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 1

f

1) Southern plantation owners considered enslaved persons to be? : Property not People.
2) What did the "Indian Removal Act" of 1830 force? : The Cherokee to relocate west of Mississippi.
3) Slave codes became stricter in the South due to? : Slave revolts were increasing.
4) The antislavery movement and abolition movement threatened what? : The southern way of life.
5) How did Jackson justify the Spoils System? : It was a good way to reward his supporters for their hard work.

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 18

Weather Test Quiz
2nd Grade Weather Test
1) What are strong, dangerous storms that form over warm ocean waters : Hurricane
2) What has winds of 120MPH or more? : Hurricane
3) What are low, gray clouds that usually show rain is on the way? : Stratus Clouds
4) Clouds that are huge, dark and stormy are ? : Cumulonimbus Clouds
5) What happens because the air pressure is different in different place. : Wind

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 24

Weather Test
2nd Grade Weather Test
1) What is the changing of a gas into a liquid. Taking heat away from a gas or cooling it changes the gas into a liquid. When water vapor cools the water changes form – it becomes liquid water. : Condensation
2) What is the air that surrounds Earth. : Atmosphere

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 2

Entomology- Insect Orders Quiz
A brief review of the various insect orders and the insects that belong to them. Information referenced from Field Guide to Texas Insects by Bastiaan Drees and John Jackman (1999).
1) Beetles fall under the order Coleoptera and are among the largest order by number of species. : True
2) Insects from the order of diptera are usually wingless and are known for their knob-like structures called halteres. : True
3) Moths and butterflies belong in the order of lepidoptera. : True
4) Hemiptera are found on plants and animals, or in water. : True
5)

The abdomen of the female hymenoptera ends in an ovipositor (a tubular organ through which a female insect or fish deposits eggs) which may be modified into a stinger.

: True

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 10

PSYCH CH 3 Part 6

1) The image on the retina is : upside down and reversed left to right.
2) Which of the following is not true of the image on the retina? : It is strongest where the optic nerve exits the eye.
3) The reason that the blind spot is not perceived as a black hole in our visual field is : because we usually have both eyes open, and each eye provides a slightly different view.
4) Which of the following is true? : You have many more rods than cones.
5) Which of the following is not true of cones? : They are more numerous than rods.

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 10

PSYCH CH 3 Part 5

1) What is the transparent structure behind the iris that changes shape as it focuses images on the retina? : the lens
2) If your lens is bulging in the centre, you are probably looking at an object : that is very close.
3) If your lens is flattened, you are probably looking at an object : that is far away.
4) The flattening and bulging action of the lens is known as : accommodation.
5) The need for reading glasses or bifocals in middle age is due to the : reduced ability of the lens to accommodate for near vision.

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 10

PSYCH CH 3 Part 4

1) Which of the following is the correct order for light as it moves toward the retina? : cornea, pupil, lens
2) The tough, transparent, protective layer covering the front of the eye is called the : cornea
3) As light enters the outer surface of the eye, what structure bends the rays of light so that they travel through the pupils? : cornea
4) The amount of light that enters into the eye is controlled by the : iris
5) The two muscles in the ________ dilate and contract the ________, thus regulating the amount of light entering the eye. : iris; pupil

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 10

PSYCH CH 3 Part 3

1) Sensory stimulation from the external world is converted into neural impulses by the : sensory receptors.
2) Which of the following is not true of sensory receptors? : They are located in the brain.
3) We experience a sensation when : the appropriate part of the brain is stimulated.
4) The process of becoming less sensitive to a stimulus that remains constant over time is known as : sensory adaptation.
5) After working for several hours at a computer terminal and using the word processor to prepare a term paper, the fact that you no longer hear the hum of the computer’s electrical system is a result of : sensory adaptation.

Created on March 06, 2017
# of questions: 10

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